General Relativity

Back to General Relativity

The son of Herman and Pauline Einstein, Albert Einstein was born in Bern on March 14, 1879, in Ulm, Germany. [TBD]

Philosophical Concepts - Quotes from Einstein regarding physical concepts such as 

Physical concepts are free creations of the human mind, and are not, however it may seem, uniquely determined by the external world.

One day in the year 1666 Newton had gone to the country, and seeing the fall of an apple, as his niece told me, let himself be led into a deep meditation on the cause which thus draws every object along a line whose extension would pass through the center of the Earth – Voltaire (1738)

"Einstein's gravitational field," by Peter M. Brown (physics/0204044), Historical article

Basic Principles in General Relativity

I do not agree with the idea that the general theory of relativity is geometerizing Physics or the gravitational field. The concepts of Physics have always been geometrical concepts and I cannot see why the gik field should be called more more geometrical that f.i. the electromagnetic field or the distance of bodies in Newtonian Mechanics. The notion comes probably from the fact that the mathematical origin of the gik field is the Gaussian Riemann theory of the metrical continuum which we are wont to look at as part of geometry. I am convinced, however, that the distinction between geometrical and other kinds of fields is not logically founded. - From a letter from Albert Einstein to Lincoln Barnett


  1. Gravitational Force in General Relativity
  2. Weight of a Moving Body
  3. Uniform Gravitational Field
  4. Gravitational Force in a Uniform Field
  5. Speed of Light in a Gravitational Field (See Ohanian)
  6. Conserved Quantities
  7. Gravitomagnetism
  8. Gravitational Field in a Cavity
  9. The Gravitational Field
  10. Photon Doppler Measured by an Observer in Free-Fall
  11. Gravitational Force on a Falling Particle
  12. Embedding Diagrams (TBD)
  13. Geodesic Deviation
  14. Einstein's Field Equations
  15. Newtonian Limit
  16. Weak Field Limit
  17.  Gravitational Field of an Infinitely Long Rod  
  18. Background Lorentz Transformation
  19. Gravitational Field of a Large Sheet 
  20. Gravitational Field of a Moving Rod 
  21. Inertial Force
  22. Gravitational Field of a Moving Sheet
  23. Gravitational Field vs Spacetime Curvature
  24. The Gravitational Field of a Directed Beam of Light
  25. Gravitational Red Shift
  26. Active Gravitational Mass  
  27. Geodesic Equation
  28. Coordinate Acceleration
  29. Potentials in General Relativity
  30. Gravitational Field of an Infinitely Long Rod
  31. Gravitational Field of a Large Sheet
  32. Gravitational Field of a Long Moving Rod
  33. Gravitational Field of a Large Moving Sheet
  34. General Gravitational Red shift 
  35. Lorentz Factor for a Uniform Gravitational Field
  36. The Concept of Mass
  37. Newtonian Limit
  38. Circle Universe
  39. Jacobian matrix for Cartesian/Spherical coordinate transformation
  40. Jacobian for Cartesian/Spherical coordinate transformation
  41. [TBD]
  42. ...
  43. ...
  44. ..

Fourth Test of General Relativity by Shapiro, et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. Vol. 20(22), Dec. 28 1964

Fourth Test of General Relativity: Preliminary Result by Shapiro, et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. Vol. 20(22), Dec. 28 1968